20.6" Hadrosaur (Edmontosaurus) Radius - South Dakota

This is a 20.6" long Hadrosaur (Edmontosaurus) radius from the Hell Creek Formation, Harding County, South Dakota. There are 9 easily identifiable repaired cracks through this bone, some of which have undergone restoration in the form of gap fill where the bone wasn't recoverable or crumbled. Both the proximal and distal epiphysis are fairly weathered, though many bony landmarks are still visible. The most significant restoration is near the distal metaphysis.

Hadrosaurs are frequently referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs and are members of the Ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. They were fairly common herbivores which roamed Asia, Europe, and North America during the Upper Cretaceous Period. Many species of Hadrosaurs had distinctive crests on their heads, some of which had air-filled chambers that may have produced a distinct sound. These crests may have been used for both audio and visual display purposes.

Because of its age and sedimentary composition, the Hell Creek Formation has become one of the most paleontologically studied areas in the world. 158 genera of animals and 64 genera of plants are known from the formation and new discoveries are made frequently. In addition to Tyrannosaurs, Ceratopsids, and Hadrosaurs, the formation has yielded remains of amphibians, reptiles, lizards, snakes and turtles, fish and sharks, avian and non-avian dinosaurs, and mammals. The Hell Creek Formation gives the most complete understanding of the environment just before the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction.
Edmontosaurus annectens
Harding County, South Dakota
Hell Creek Formation
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