13.3" Hadrosaur (Edmontosaurus) Partial Scapula in Sandstone - Wyoming

This 13.3" wide partial scapula belongs to the hadrosaur, Edmontosaurus annectens. It has been left in its natural position within the rock, collected from the Lance (Creek) Formation of Wyoming. The scapula is naturally associated with the proximal end of a rib bone (above scapula) and ossified tendon fossils on the back side of the rock, all likely from Edmontosaurus as well. The entire specimen measures 14.5 x 9.8".

Comes with an acrylic-metal display stand.

Edmontosaurus is one of the largest Hadrosaurs, and one of the most widespread, with fossil remains of Edmontosaurus being found across western North America from Colorado to northern Alaska. This large herbivore was about the same size as the contemporary predator Tyrannosaurus, reaching 39 feet in length and an average weight of about 6 tons. Named after Edmonton, the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta where the first fossils of the animal were discovered, Edmontosaurus was a gregarious terrestrial herbivore that ground up low-lying plant material with its large battery of ever-restoring teeth. Numerous skin impressions and mummified specimens show us that Edmontosaurus had scaly skin, and its forelimbs were enclosed in a fleshy "mitten" serving a purpose similar to a hoof. Edmontosaurus was a member of the Saurolophine clade of Hadrosaurs, meaning they had little or nonexistent crests on the backs of their skulls.

The Lance Formation of Wyoming, which dates back to the Late Cretaceous period between 66 and 69 million years ago, is home to a wide variety of both dinosaur fossils and assorted small vertebrates. During the Cretaceous, this midwestern formation would have been comprised of streams connected to the large Western Interior Seaway which split continental North America in half down the midwest. As a result of the subtropical climate and frequent rainfall, life flourished both on land and in the sea. The frequent deposition of sediment caused by the stream environment is what allows the Lance Formation to be such a fertile fossil site.

Perhaps the most famous Lance resident would be the Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest North American carnivore to ever live. However, other smaller theropods also roamed the American midwest in this subtropical coastal stream system. These included the beaked Ornithomimus, a lanky running theropod with a build similar to a modern ostrich, as well as several small predatory troodonts, such as Paronychodon and Pectinodon.

Herbivorous dinosaurs also took advantage of the abundance offered by their community. Armored ankylosaurs dwelt in herds, their safety assured by their numbers, their heavy bone plating protecting most of their bodies, including their eyelids, and huge bone clubs on the ends of their tails providing them with powerful offensive capabilities. Ceratopsians like the famous Triceratops also formed protective herds, gaurding their necks with frills and horns. Their smaller relatives, the dome-headed pachycephalosaurs, were also well represented in the area. Hadrosaurs, duck-billed titans with huge batteries of plant-grinding teeth in elongated snouts, are also well known from the region.

In addition to dinosaurs, a wide variety of fishes, amphibians, lizards, snakes, turtles, champsosaurs, crocodilians, and pterosaurs have been found in the formation.
Edmontosaurus annectens
Weston County, Wyoming
Lance (Creek) Formation
Scapula: 13.3" long, Entire Specimen: 14.5 x 9.8"
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