3.3" Lustrous Hubnerite and Quartz Crystal Association - Peru

This is an eye catching hubnerite (manganese tungstate), pyrite and quartz crystal association. It comes from the Huayllapon Mine (Huallapon Mine) in the Pallasca Province of Peru. The entire specimen measures 3.3" wide.

Quartz is the name given to silicon dioxide (SiO2) and is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's crust. Quartz crystals generally grow in silica-rich environments--usually igneous rocks or hydrothermal environments like geothermal waters--at temperatures between 100°C and 450°C, and usually under very high pressure. In either case, crystals will precipitate as temperatures cool, just as ice gradually forms when water freezes. Quartz veins are formed when open fissures are filled with hot water during the closing stages of mountain formation: these veins can be hundreds of millions of years old.

The mineral pyrite, also known as iron pyrite, is commonly referred to as Fool's Gold because its metallic luster and pale brass-yellow hue give it a superficial resemblance to gold. In the old mining days, pyrite was sometimes mistaken for gold.

It is the most common of the sulfide minerals with the chemical formula FeS2. Pyrite crystals occur in many shapes and habits, including cubes of all sizes, penetration twin cubes, pyritohedral clusters and as small druzy crystals that can exhibit a beautiful glistening effect.

Hubnerite (Manganese Tungstate), Pyrite & Quartz
Huayllapon Mine (Huallapon Mine), Pampas District, Pallasca Province, Peru
3.3 x 2.1