12.5" Hadrosaur Vertebra with 2.5" Tyrannosaur Tooth - Montana

This is a jaw-dropping specimen that prominently features a well preserved, 12.5" tall, Hadrosaur dorsal vertebra in association with a very nice, 2.5" Tyrannosaur tooth. It came from a channel deposit where the tooth was likely swept down stream and became lodged against the vertebra prior to fossilization. It is a really interesting association of predator and prey from the Judith River Formation.

The vertebra has been almost completely exposed from the rock, with only a small portion of rock remaining where the tooth is imbedded near the left transverse process if viewing the specimen from the posterior face. There are multiple repaired cracks through most of the vertebra, with some gap fill restoration at the pedicles leading to the transverse processes. The spinous process has a few repaired cracks but minimal gap fill. This restoration is quite limited for a vertebra of this size.

The large, serrated tooth is from an unidentified Tyrannosaur (there are several present in the formation) and is in excellent condition. There is limited restoration in the form of gap fill near the root and a couple of minor repaired cracks. The enamel exhibits phenomenal color and preservation. This tooth has excellent serrations that run along the distal cutting edge of the blade.

This specimen is accompanied by a custom display stand.

Vertebra - 12.5 x 4.7 x 3.7"
Tooth - 2.5" long
Entire specimen (including stand) - 14.45 x 6.1"

There are three described Tyrannosaurs from the Two Medicine Formation & Judith River Formation; Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Daspletosaurus. Research done on teeth from these three Tyrannosaurs has concluded that isolated teeth are statistically impossible to assign to a specific genus because they are so similar.

Morphometry of the teeth of western North American tyrannosaurids and its applicability to quantitative classification

The Judith River Formation is one of the most prolific sources of Late Cretaceous vertebrate fossils. At least sixteen Orders containing more than forty Genera are known from the formation. These include fish, amphibians, mammals, and insects in addition to the reptiles, avian and non-avian dinosaurs (birds). Among the more interesting specimens is Leonardo, a mummified and fossilized Brachylophosaurus. This is a Hadrosaur, a duck-billed dinosaur with amazing preservation of the soft tissues of the body. The pattern in the skin of the feet is even preserved. In addition to Leonardo, the Judith River Formation contains the remains of the theropod Hesperornis, the only known freshwater Hespernorthid, a penguin like bird.

Unidentified Hadrosaur & Unidentified Tyrannosaur
Hill County, Montana
Judith River Formation
Overall specimen (on stand): 14.45 x 6.1", Vertebra: 12.5" tall, Tooth: 2.5" long
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