19.6" Hadrosaur (Edmontosaurus) Vertebra With Metal Stand - Montana

This is a proximal caudal vertebra of a hadrosaur (Edmontosaurus annectens) from the Hell Creek Formation of Dawson County, Montana. It is in excellent condition, complete with both transverse processes, a spinous process, a beautifully preserved centrum, and both prezygapophyses and postzygapophyses. Most of the cortical bone has weathered away, exposing the bone cell canals within. The preservation of the processes is amazing, considering these features are often lost over the years due to their fragile nature.

The entire vertebra measures 19.6 x 14.4" (2.7" thick centrum) and is accompanied by the pictured custom metal display stand.

Each process required gap fill restoration and crack repair to piece back together. The transverse processes have restoration at their proximal and distal ends, with intact bone visible between the two points of restoration on each side. The distal end of the spinous process has undergone some gap fill restoration and there are crack repairs throughout the process. The pedicles around the neural canal are in phenomenal condition, requiring some crack repair, but no gap fill restoration. There are some minor spots of gap fill restoration and repaired cracks through the centrum, however it is approximately 95% complete.

Hadrosaurs are frequently referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs and are members of the Ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. They were fairly common herbivores that roamed Asia, Europe, and North America during the Upper Cretaceous Period. Many species of Hadrosaurs had distinctive crests on their heads, some of which had air-filled chambers that may have produced a distinct sound. These crests may have been used for both audio and visual display purposes.

Because of its age and sedimentary composition, the Hell Creek Formation has become one of the most paleontologically studied areas in the world. 158 genera of animals and 64 genera of plants are known from the formation and new discoveries are made frequently. In addition to Tyrannosaurs, Ceratopsids, and Hadrosaurs, the formation has yielded remains of amphibians, reptiles, lizards, snakes and turtles, fish and sharks, avian and non-avian dinosaurs, and mammals. The Hell Creek Formation gives the most complete understanding of the environment just before the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction.
Edmontosaurus annectens
Dawson County, Montana
Hell Creek Formation
19.6 x 14.4", 18.5" tall on stand
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