Composite Hadrosaur Toe - Hell Creek Formation, South Dakota

This is a nicely preserved set of Hadrosaur phalange toe bones from the Hell Creek Formation in South Dakota. The bones are beautifully articulated, however the toe is a composite, consisting of bones from separate Hadrosaurs. The proximal phalanx is 3.9" wide, the medial phalanx is 3.75" wide and the distal phalanx (Ungual/claw) measures 3.8 x 3.6". There are repaired cracks through both the proximal and medial phalanges, though there doesn't appear to be any significant restoration aside from gap fill. The ungual has some crack repair along its edges and stress fracturing along the inferior side of the bone. This specimen is accompanied by a Riker display case.

Since isolated bones are difficult to provide an accurate genus for, to be safe, we have labeled this as coming from an Indeterminate Hadrosaur. That being said, the ungual and phalanxes have us leaning towards Edmontosaurus.

Hadrosaurs are frequently referred to as duck-billed dinosaurs and are members of the Ornithischian family Hadrosauridae. They were fairly common herbivores which roamed Asia, Europe, and North America during the Upper Cretaceous Period. Many species of Hadrosaurs had distinctive crests on their heads, some of which had air-filled chambers that may have produced a distinct sound. These crests may have been used for both audio and visual display purposes.

Because of its age and sedimentary composition, the Hell Creek Formation has become one of the most paleontologically studied areas in the world. 158 genera of animals and 64 genera of plants are known from the formation and new discoveries are made frequently. In addition to Tyrannosaurs, Ceratopsids, and Hadrosaurs, the formation has yielded remains of amphibians, reptiles, lizards, snakes and turtles, fish and sharks, avian and non-avian dinosaurs, and mammals. The Hell Creek Formation gives the most complete understanding of the environment just before the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction.
Indeterminate Hadrosaur
South Dakota
Hell Creek Formation
Ungual measures 3.8 x 3.6"
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